- Far future in science fiction and popular culture
- BBC - History - The Story of the Conquistadors
- 1st millennium
- Navigation menu
However, like all 'close encounters', these events also had a profound effect on modern ways of seeing the world. The deeds of the Conquistadors, for example, led to a passionate debate in Spain, among politicians and theologians, on the fundamental principles of justice and morality raised by the conquests.
In particular, what were the rights of the native American societies? Were the 'Indians' fully human, like Europeans? Were the Aztecs, the Mayans and the Incas truly civilisations as, for example, Aristotle defined them? Did the Spaniards have the right to conquer them, and convert them to Christianity? Did they even have an obligation to do so?
Far future in science fiction and popular culture
Or did they have no right to interfere in any way? In the summer of , in Valladolid, these great themes were aired before the King's council. The Aristotelian scholar and humanist Juan Gines de Sepulveda argued for the civilising mission of Spain, so long as it was done humanely. The Indians were 'natural slaves' as Aristotle had defined the phrase, 'inhumane barbarians who thought the greatest gift they could offer to God was human hearts'.
People whose brilliant art and sculpture was no proof of their civilisation, 'for do not even bees and spiders make works which no human can imitate? The great Dominican defender of Indian rights, Bartolome de Las Casas, brought a vast dossier of first-hand reportage to the hearing - as compelling an indictment of human cruelty as any modern report on the atrocities of Cambodia, Rwanda or Kosovo. His eloquent defence of the indigenous peoples ended with a noble cri de coeur : 'All the world is human'.
What is amazing is that the Spanish king actually listened. In a moment unique in the annals of imperialism, Charles V ordered the conquests to be stopped, while the issues were explored further. However, as we know from our own time, ethical foreign policy will always run up against the cold reality of politics. Once the genie is let out of the bottle, history cannot be stopped. The Conquista continued.
In a sense, it is still not over. Indeed what we are seeing now is a Second Conquista. For the global culture creeps with the electricity lines up even the loneliest valleys of the Andes. It will be as hard to resist as the first. Today some modern scholars see the arguments outlined in the Valladolid debate as the forerunner of our own conception of human rights, and Las Casas as the first inspiration for the UN Declaration of A declaration in part prompted by the lessons of the past, and in part by the tragedies of contemporary history.
Certainly the tragic dimensions of the 16th-century holocaust were apparent to people at the time. Many of the Spaniards were profoundly moved by what they had seen. The destruction of the last civilisations to have risen independently on the face of the earth, without contact with the world outside them. On his deathbed, Mansio Serra de Leguizamon, one of the conquerors of Peru, expressed profound regret for the unjust destruction of Inca society. Among these Spaniards were not only churchmen, like Sahagun, who fell in love with Nahuatl Aztec culture, but even the conquistadors themselves.
Bernal Diaz, who marched with Cortes, was moved to compare the tragedy of Mexico with the Fall of Troy. On his deathbed, Mansio Serra de Leguizamon, one of the conquerors of Peru, expressed profound regret for the unjust destruction of Inca society: 'I have to say this now for my conscience: for I am the last to die of the conquistadors. For once, then, all the hyperbole is justified.
These are without doubt some of history's greatest stories and some of history's most remarkable deeds. Many were dreadful and appalling - as were their consequences. Travelling in the traditional societies of the Americas, nearly years on from the Conquest, I have often felt pessimistic about the fate of all these cultures, as they fight against the long aftermath of those events and the onset of global culture. Their encoded identities, built up over millennia, are being scrubbed away so rapidly, in just a generation or two. History, as we all know, leaves many wounds.
Some wounds never heal, but with time some do. The Conquista was at once one of the most significant events in history, and one of the most cruel and devastating.
However, in history, there is no going back. According to the main modern interpretation, this prophecy describes a period of time when a quarter of the population of the earth would be killed by a combination of wars, famine and disease. The prophecy describes the causes as 1 a conquering people whose weapon was the bow "I looked, and there before me was a white horse! Its rider held a bow, and he was given a crown, and he rode out as a conqueror bent on conquest", 2 as people engaged in constant war "Then another horse came out, a fiery red one.
Its rider was given power to take peace from the earth and to make men slay each other. To him was given a large sword", 3 high food prices leading to famine "before me was a black horse!
BBC - History - The Story of the Conquistadors
Its rider was holding a pair of scales in his hand. Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, "A quart of wheat for a day's wages, and three quarts of barley for a day's wages, and do not damage the oil and the wine! Its rider was named Death, and Hades was following close behind him.
Though theologians and popular culture differ on the first Horseman, the four riders are often seen as symbolizing Conquest  or Pestilence and less frequently, the Christ or the Antichrist , War ,  Famine ,  and Death. Then I saw when the Lamb broke one of the seven seals , and I heard one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder, "Come.
Based on the above passage, a common translation into English, the rider of the White Horse sometimes referred to as the White Rider He carries a bow, and wears a victor's crown. Irenaeus , an influential Christian theologian of the 2nd century, was among the first to interpret this Horseman as Christ himself, his white horse representing the successful spread of the gospel.
Furthermore, earlier in the New Testament, the Book of Mark indicates that the advance of the gospel may indeed precede and foretell the apocalypse. Besides Christ, the Horseman could represent the Holy Spirit. The appearance of the Lion in Revelation 5 shows the triumphant arrival of Jesus in Heaven, and the first Horseman could represent the sending of the Holy Spirit by Jesus and the advance of the gospel of Jesus Christ.
Other interpretations relying on comparative religious research ascribe the first Horseman as guiding for "the right path"; Mahabharata Lord Krishna was a charioteer to Arjuna by riding on white horses, while Arjuna himself was an archer. While for nearly nineteen centuries Christians had thought that the first horseman was a positive figure representing either Christ or the Gospel, a completely different interpretation of this character emerged in  when C.
Wimpel defended the first the hypothesis that he was the Antichrist and more precisely according to him Napoleon Bonaparte . It was taken over from the next generation in the United States by R. Franklin in  and W. Stevens in  and was then very successful in evangelical circles until today, for example with Pastor Billy Graham , for whom it is the Antichrist or false prophets in general . This hypothesis is now spreading throughout the world through evangelical churches. According to Edward Bishop Elliott 's interpretation, that the Four Horsemen represent a prophecy of the subsequent history of the Roman Empire, the white color of this horse signifies triumph, prosperity and health in the political Roman body.
For the next 80 or 90 years succeeding the banishment of the apostle John to Patmos covering the successive reigns of the emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian and the two Antonines Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius , a golden age of prosperity, union, civil liberty and good government unstained with civil blood unfolded. The agents of this prosperity personified by the rider of the white horse are these five emperors wearing crowns that reigned with absolute authority and power under the guidance of virtue and wisdom, the armies being restrained by their firm and gentle hands.
This interpretation points out that the bow was preeminently a weapon of the inhabitants of the island of Crete and not of the Roman Empire in general. The Cretans were renowned for their archery skills. The significance of the rider of the white horse holding a bow indicates the place of origin of the line of emperors ruling during this time. This group of emperors can be classed together under one and the same head and family whose origins were from Crete. According to this interpretation, this period in Roman history, remarkable, both at its commencement and at its close, illustrated the glory of the empire where its limits were extended, though not without occasional wars, which were always uniformly triumphant and successful on the frontiers.
The triumphs of the Emperor Trajan, a Roman Alexander, added to the empire Dacia, Armenia, Mesopotamia and other provinces during the course of the first 20 years of the period, which deepened the impression on the minds of the barbarians of the invincibility of the Roman Empire. Roman war progressed triumphantly into the invader's own territory, and the Parthian war was successfully ended by the total overthrow of those people. Roman conquest is demonstrated even in the most mighty of these wars, the Marcomannic succession of victories under the second Antonine unleashed on the German barbarians, driven into their forests and reduced to Roman submission.
In some commentaries to Bibles, the white Horseman is said to symbolize ordinary War, which may possibly be exercised on righteous grounds in decent manner, hence the white color, but still is devastating. The red Horseman see below then rather more specifically symbolizes Civil War.
Under another interpretation, the first Horseman is called Pestilence , and is associated with infectious disease and plague. It appears at least as early as , when it is mentioned in the Jewish Encyclopedia. The origin of this interpretation is unclear. Some translations of the Bible mention " plague " e. However, it is a matter of debate as to whether this passage refers to the first rider, or to the four riders as a whole.
While his horse continued galloping, he was bending his bow in order to spread pestilence abroad. At his back swung the brass quiver filled with poisoned arrows, containing the germs of all diseases. When He broke the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, "Come.
The rider of the second horse is often taken to represent War  he is often pictured holding a sword upwards as though ready for battle  or mass slaughter. The color red, as well as the rider's possession of a great sword, suggests blood that is to be spilled.
In military symbolism, swords held upward, especially crossed swords held upward, signify war and entering into battle. The second Horseman may represent civil war as opposed to the war of conquest that the first Horseman is sometimes said to bring. According to Edward Bishop Elliott's interpretation of the Four Horsemen as symbolic prophecy of the history of the Roman Empire, the second seal is opened and the Roman nation that experienced joy, prosperity and triumph is made subject to the red horse which depicts war and bloodshed—civil war.
Peace left the Roman Earth resulting in the killing of one another as insurrection crept into and permeated the Empire beginning shortly into the reign of the Emperor Commodus. Elliott points out that Commodus , who had nothing to wish and everything to enjoy, that beloved son of Marcus Aurelius who ascended the throne with neither competitor to remove nor enemies to punish, became the slave of his attendants who gradually corrupted his mind.
His cruelty degenerated into habit and became the ruling passion of his soul. Elliott further recites that, after the death of Commodus, a most turbulent period lasting 92 years unfolded during which time 32 emperors and 27 pretenders to the Empire hurled each other from the throne by incessant civil warfare. The sword was a natural, universal badge among the Romans, of the military profession. The apocalyptic figure indicated by the great sword indicated an undue authority and unnatural use of it. Military men in power, whose vocation was war and weapon the sword, rose by it and also fell.
The unrestrained military, no longer subject to the Senate, transformed the Empire into a system of pure military despotism. When He broke the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, "Come.
And I heard something like a voice in the center of the four living creatures saying, "A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius; but do not damage the oil and the wine. The third Horseman rides a black horse and is popularly understood to be Famine as the Horseman carries a pair of balances or weighing scales , indicating the way that bread would have been weighed during a famine. Of the Four Horsemen, the black horse and its rider are the only ones whose appearance is accompanied by a vocal pronunciation.
John hears a voice, unidentified but coming from among the four living creatures , that speaks of the prices of wheat and barley, also saying "and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine ". This suggests that the black horse's famine is to drive up the price of grain but leave oil and wine supplies unaffected though out of reach of the ordinary worker.
One explanation for this is that grain crops would have been more naturally susceptible to famine years or locust plagues than olive trees and grapevines , which root more deeply. The statement might also suggest a continuing abundance of luxuries for the wealthy while staples, such as bread, are scarce, though not totally depleted;  such selective scarcity may result from injustice and the deliberate production of luxury crops for the wealthy over grain, as would have happened during the time Revelation was written.
According to Edward Bishop Elliott's interpretation, through this third seal, the black horse is unleashed—aggravated distress and mourning. The balance in the rider's hand is not associated with a man's weighing out bits of bread in scanty measure for his family's eating but in association with the buying and selling of corn and other grains.
The balance during the time of the apostle John's exile in Patmos was commonly a symbol of justice since it was used to weigh out the grains for a set price. The balance of justice held in the hand of the rider of the black horse signified the aggravation of the other previous evil, the bloodstained red of the Roman aspect into the darker blackness of distress. In history, the Roman Empire suffered as a result of excessive taxation of its citizens. During the reign of Emperor Caracalla , whose sentiments were very different from the Antonines being inattentive, or rather averse, to the welfare of the people, he found himself under the necessity of gratifying the greed and excessive lifestyle which he had excited in the Army.
During his reign, he crushed every part of the empire under the weight of his iron scepter. Old as well as new taxes were at the same time levied in the provinces. In the course of this history, the land tax, the taxes for services and the heavy contributions of corn, wine, oil and meat were exacted from the provinces for the use of the court, army and capital. This noxious weed not totally eradicated again sprang up with the most luxurious growth and going forward darkened the Roman world with its deadly shade.
In reality, the rise to power of the Emperor Maximin , whose cruelty was derived from a different source being raised as a barbarian from the district of Thrace, expanded the distress on the empire beyond the confines of the illustrious senators or bold adventurers who in the court or army exposed themselves to the whims of fortune. This tyrant, stimulated by the insatiable desires of the soldiers, attacked the public property at length.
Every city of the empire was destined to purchase corn for the multitudes as well as supply expenses for the games. By the Emperor's authority, the whole mass of wealth was confiscated for use by the Imperial treasury—temples stripped of their most valuable offerings of gold, silver and statues which were melted down and coined into money. The People of Hyrule do not see the creation of the world as an ex-nihilo event, rather a continuance from a forgotten cycle.
Most commonly this event is attributed to the three Goddesses, Din , Nayru and Farore , though modern interpretations have become more monotheistic in their understanding. There are no proper historical documents of the creation event, only mythical, oral, and religious presentations. Another broad span of time, though with true historical records. Information becomes more solid near 3, BG, with only vague accounts of Hyrule truely ancient civilizations such as the Kovalians , Lokomo , Cobble , Wizzrobe , and proto- Darknuts.
Most modern Hyrulean civilizations tend to focus on the last millennium of this time period when they refer to the "Ancient Age", specifically the rise of the Akkalans and creation of the Kingdom of Hyrule. Many of the Great Houses of Hyrule are able to trace their lineage back to the later years of this period. Due to the vague nature of the source material available from this age, most of the dates should be considered educated guesses or approximations. This is especially true for the earlier years of the chronology, while the latter half is more solidified in certainty.